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Attention !

Some articles in the Electronics section, including, but not limited to, sub-sections High voltage and X-rays, might display and explain things which can be considered dangerous or life-threatening to the general public. Since these posts are dedicated to other enthusiasts besides me, who understand the article and have full knowledge and control over their actions, no special or separate warnings are present at the beginning of every post. Feel free to inspire yourself, but if you are unsure, better ask or stay away! Do not blame me – I’m not responsible for your actions, if you make a mistake resulting in loss of data, material/property damage, injury, death, or whatever happens.

Comments: Are welcome and highly appreciated! However, behave politely and try to stay on topic. Off-color posts will be removed without warning; trolls will face the banhammer.
I speak Slovak, Czech, English and German, so if you want to ask me a question and expect a proper response, please formulate it in one of those languages. If you are a foreigner, you know how machine translations suck.

Pictures: Almost every image opens in a “lightbox” upon being clicked on, displaying it in a somewhat larger view, than it would originally appear on the webpage.
To view the image in full size, you need to right-click on it (when displayed in the lightbox) and use the “View Image” browser option.

Electronic parts notation: I might have written some schematics in the old-fashioned way of marking parts, that’s been in use in that part of the world where I grew up, for more than half a century. It might be a little bit confusing to the western readers, so here’s a short explanation.
This system avoids the decimal point and Greek symbols to make printing easier. It stems from the old days, when the basic unit for plotting out resistance was 1 ohm and 1 picofarad for capacitance. So to save space, a kilo/mega/giga suffix (k, M, G) was used in place of the decimal point.
In other words, out of the examples below, all combinations are possible but usually the shortest form is used:

0.68 ohm resistor = 0R68
22 kiloohm resistor = 22k = M022 = 0M022 = 22000R = 22000 …
2.2 megaohm resistor = 2M2 = 2200k …
220 nanofarad capacitor = 220n = 220k (“kilopicofarad”) = M22 (0.22 “megapicofarad”) = 0M22 …
500 nanofarad capacitor = 500n = M5
680 picofarad capacitor = 680p = 680 = k68 = 0k68 = n68 = 0n68 …
5.6 millifarad capacitor = 5G6 = 5600M …
1 farad capacitor = 1F = 1000G …
… and so on.

Thanks for understanding.